Anopheles stephensi summary
Anopheles stephensi is considered a very important vector of P. falciparum and P. vivax across the Indian sub-continent and the Middle East, especially in urban settings (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195908/). The species has also recently been recorded in Dijoubti, in the horn of Africa. The tolerance of An. stephensi to urban environments, mean it could present challenges for malaria control programmes (https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12936-018-2523-y).
Anopheles stephensi will oviposit in artificial containers such as wells, water tankers, gutters and water pools in construction and industrial sites. This trait differentiates An. stephensi from other anophelines, which typically prefer unpolluted larval habitats in more rural areas. It is likely that urban populations of this species exhibit anthropophily due to host availability. They are primarily described as indoor-resting and feeding, however in warmer months when there is more human activity outside, they exhibit exophagy (https://www.intechopen.com/books/anopheles-mosquitoes-new-insights-into-malaria-vectors/global-distribution-of-the-dominant-vector-species-of-malaria).