Brugian filariasis is caused by the parasitic roundworm, Brugia malayi. The parasite is responsible for around 10% of LF cases . The juvenile stages either exhibit a nocturnal periodicity or subperiodicity, meaning they are only found circulating in peripheral blood and specific times of night or also circulate in small numbers during the days, respectively . This coincides with the biting times of the mosquito vectors. The majority of transmission occurs by Mansonia mosquitoes but in some areas, Anophelines are also responsible . Brugian filariasis is confined to regions of East and South Asia including India, Malaysia and Thailand.
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